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buy antibiotics has exposed cipro price canada the cracks in the foundation of America’s rural community health system. These cracks include increased risk of facility closures, loss of services, low investment in public health, maldistribution of health professionals, and payment policies ill-suited to low-volume rural providers.As a result, short-term relief to stabilize rural health systems and long-term strategies to rebuild their foundations are necessary. In this post, we propose cipro price canada four policy cornerstones on which to rebuild the rural health system.

They include new financing and delivery models, community engagement, local health planning, and regionalization of delivery systems.The Cracked FoundationThe cracks in the rural health system’s foundation impair system performance on many levels. Rural hospitals, clinics, and emergency medical services (EMS) report reduced revenues and utilization. Shortages of personal cipro price canada protective equipment, testing supplies, and ventilators.

And limited buy antibiotics surge capacity. The chronic underfunding of rural public health has also dismantled emergency response capacity. Finally, enhanced payment policies have slowed, but not prevented, rural hospital closures.While these cracks are not new, buy antibiotics has cipro price canada revealed how deep they are.

For example, 172 rural hospitals have closed since 2005. Due to chronic underfunding, rural public cipro price canada health departments employ staff with narrower skill sets and fewer epidemiologists than their urban peers. Low patient utilization and revenues have severely reduced the crisis response capacity of rural health systems.

Rural communities have fewer health resources to respond to buy antibiotics.Despite concerns about hospital closures, a large percentage of rural residents bypass their local health systems. These bypass patterns reveal tension between the desire to retain local services and the will to sustain these services through utilization and financial cipro price canada support.Weaknesses of Volume-Based Payment PoliciesFee-for-service payment policies fail to address rural providers’ high fixed costs, inadequate cash reserves, and high reliance on non-emergent care revenues. They also discourage delivery of high-value, low-margin services such as primary care, chronic care, and prevention.To sustain low-volume rural providers, Medicare provides enhanced reimbursement to critical access, sole community, and Medicare-dependent hospitals and Rural Health Clinics.

Still, these designation programs rely cipro price canada on fee-for-service payment methods insufficient for rural providers. They fail to mitigate the impact of Medicare sequestration and bad debt cuts, low Medicaid and commercial reimbursement, low dependence on inpatient care, and declining rural populations.At the same time, volume-based payment policies in our market-based health system favor the location of services in larger communities and encourage providers to compete for business. This reality does not serve rural areas well, particularly small and isolated areas.

A competitive market approach, cipro price canada in the absence of formal health planning, inhibits coordination, promotes wasteful competition, distributes services inefficiently, and shifts planning from local to corporate levels.Patching the Foundation. Short-Term Solutionsbuy antibiotics has widened the cracks in our rural health foundation. Short-term responses have included financial support as well as regulatory relief to expand telehealth use and increase hospital bed availability.

These interventions seek to stabilize rural providers and cipro price canada their ability to respond to community needs. buy antibiotics’s impact has also renewed interest in the Rural Hospital Closure Relief Act of 2019 [PDF] (H.R. 5481/S.

3103). The Act would allow additional struggling rural hospitals to become Critical Access Hospitals by restoring state authority to designate necessary providers.After buy antibiotics, we will face difficult decisions. Some rural providers may close, while many others will be weakened.

State and local governments may face growing service demands with fewer resources to meet those demands.Rebuilding the Foundation. Long Term SolutionsWhile helpful, traditional rural support policies have not fully repaired the foundation of rural community health. Thus, long-term strategies to rebuild, rather than patch, the rural health foundation are needed.

In response, we propose the following four policy cornerstones to anchor this approach.Cornerstone 1. New financing and delivery system modelsNew rural financing and delivery system models are needed to:Respond to individual community requirements;Rightsize services;Reduce reliance on utilization and patient volume;Cover the costs of care, including fixed costs;Sustain crisis response capacity;Support public and population health, team-based care, telehealth, and transportation. AndEnsure access to inpatient, outpatient, specialty, and primary care services.Demonstrations in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Vermont are testing payment and delivery system models that may inform future rural health system development.

Revisiting lessons learned from past state and federal demonstrations can provide additional information to supplement the results of these demonstrations.Cornerstone 2. Community engagementImplementation of rural delivery system models will be less effective unless communities engage in selecting models that meets their needs. Effective community engagement includes cross-sector representation, participation of vulnerable populations, and education on the economics of local health care services.

Community members must understand that health systems are not “public utilities” but resources requiring local utilization and financial support. Effective community engagement seeks to identify and reflect local concerns, values, and priorities. It should also explore why residents bypass local services to seek care outside of the community.

Communities will need tools, technical assistance, and resources to support their community engagement processes.Cornerstone 3. Local health planningCommunity engagement and local health planning are closely aligned. Local health planning processes are not the large-scale programs created under the National Health Planning and Resource Development Act of 1974.

Rather, they are local efforts that can leverage the community health needs assessments (CHNAs) required of tax-exempt hospitals or the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) process, used by public health agencies for voluntary accreditation. These processes offer a framework to conduct community health planning and engagement focused on health rather than health services.Collaboration between hospitals and local health departments (LDHs) would result in more comprehensive community health assessments. Maryland, New York, North Carolina, and Ohio encourage collaboration between hospitals and LHDs and/or the alignment of their assessment cycles.

New York requires hospitals and LHDs to collaborate on CHNAs, prioritize community issues, and jointly implement initiatives to address health priorities. To maximize their effectiveness, these assessments and planning processes should reflect the health system and health improvement needs of the community.Cornerstone 4. Regionalization of delivery systemsRegionalization of high-cost services complements effective local health planning.

Rural health systems often compete in “medical arms races” for specialty and diagnostic services, resulting in duplication and inefficient resource use. In contrast, regionalization involves “rightsizing” health systems by organizing delivery of essential services locally and high-cost services regionally. The loss of rural obstetrical services is an opportunity to regionalize care by providing pre/postnatal services locally, performing deliveries at designated regional hospitals, and offering transportation to ensure access to regional services.Effective planning and regionalization require local and state-level input on the distribution of rural populations, needs, and services.

States can play an important role in encouraging regional health planning. Texas, for example, funded Regional Health Partnerships (RHPs) under a Medicaid 1115 waiver. RHPs, which include hospitals and LHDs.

RHPs must create plans to improve regional access, quality, cost-effectiveness and collaboration. Florida, as another example, established local health councils which are non-profit agencies that conduct regional health planning and implementation activities.Regional health planning can also support coordinated preparedness and response to local and global events. Minnesota, for example, established eight Health Care Coalitions that collaborate inter-regionally for planning and response purposes.

State Offices of Rural Health and other stakeholders can facilitate regional planning by convening health care, public health, and social service partners.With Crisis Comes OpportunityRural America has an exceptional history of resilience, innovation, and collaboration. Recovery from buy antibiotics requires new strategies to rebuild the crumbling rural health foundation. The four cornerstones – payment and delivery system reform, community engagement, local health planning, and regionalization – can provide the base for strong and vibrant health systems serving rural America.Tools and resources are needed to support rural communities in taking responsibility for their health systems.

Government and philanthropic organizations can be an important source of funding for development of these resources. We further recommend that states explore opportunities to create regional planning systems to improve the delivery of essential and specialty services in rural areas. While buy antibiotics has weakened rural health systems, it also provides an opportunity to pursue a new approach to engage rural communities in planning for and developing sustainable systems of care.

John Gale is a Senior Research Associate and the Director of Policy Engagement at the Maine Rural Health Research Center. His work concentrates on rural delivery systems including Rural Health Clinics. Critical Access Hospitals.

And mental health, substance use, primary care, and EMS services. The central focus of his work is on the development of systems of care that overcome the siloes inherent in our health care system and the development of programs and services to support rural providers. Latest posts by John Gale (see all) Alana KnudsonAlana Knudson, PhD, serves as a Program Area Director in the Public Health Department at NORC at the University of Chicago and is the Director of NORC’s Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis.

Dr. Knudson has over 25 years of experience implementing and directing public health programs, leading health services and policy research projects, and evaluating program effectiveness. Latest posts by Alana Knudson (see all) Shena Popat, MHA, is a Research Scientist in the Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis at NORC at the University of Chicago.

Ms. Popat has extensive experience working on rural and frontier health program evaluations and policy analysis projects, collaborating with partners and stakeholders to develop policy recommendations for federal agencies. Previously, Ms.

Popat served as a manager at a rural critical access hospital. Ms. Popat received her master’s in health administration from the George Washington University.

Latest posts by Shena Popat (see all) Share this:Like this:Like Loading... Listen to this post.

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About This TrackerThis http://biohof-paulsen.de/diflucan-price-no-insurance tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel antibiotics by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global buy cipro pill map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) antibiotics Resource Center’s buy antibiotics Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) antibiotics Disease (buy antibiotics-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About buy antibiotics antibioticsIn late 2019, a new antibiotics buy cipro pill emerged in central China to cause disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as buy antibiotics, have since been reported across around the globe.

On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the cipro represents a public health emergency buy cipro pill of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.Global Health Legislation During the 117th Congress(as of Aug. 2, 2021)TitleDate IntroducedBill #SponsorStatusTopicSummary of Global Health-Related ProvisionsAbortion is Health Care Everywhere Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the use of funds for comprehensive reproductive health care services, and for other purposes.3/9/2021H.R. 1670Rep.

Janice Schakowsky (D-IL-9)Referred to HFACAbortion, Helms amendmentIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion. Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S.

861Sen. Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice and referred to S. HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment. Among other things, states the framework must describe existing efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve these.

Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19 unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R. 3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H.

Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsStates the President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to such. Requires the President to allocate excess U.S. buy antibiotics treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance from the American people or the U.S.

Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S. If appropriate.American Rescue Plan Act of 2021To provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II of S. Con. Res.

5.2/24/2021H.R. 1319Rep. John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L. 117-2)buy antibiotics, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S.

239Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law. Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest.

In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language. See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for buy antibiotics–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep.. Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H.

Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to buy antibiotics and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to buy antibiotics and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its buy antibiotics response, sharing relevant health data, and how a buy antibiotics treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things. Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year. Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than buy antibiotics) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S.

And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.BLUE Pacific ActTo establish a comprehensive, long-term United States strategy and policy for the Pacific Islands, and for other purposes.5/4/2021H.R. 2967Rep. Ed Case (D-HI-1)Referred to HFAC, H. Ways and Means, H.

Natural ResourcesPublic health capacity building, buy antibiotics, gender-based violenceStates U.S. Policy is to develop and commit to a comprehensive, multifaceted, and principled U.S. Policy in the Pacific Islands that, among other things, assists the Pacific Islands in preventing and containing the spread of the buy antibiotics cipro. Requires the USAID Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of States, to develop and implement a strategy to assist the Pacific Islands in improving public health outcomes and building public health capacity, including in response to the buy antibiotics cipro.

Requires the strategy include programming to address maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, gender-based violence, food security and nutrition, NCDs, NTDs, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, and zoonotic and emerging infectious disease threats, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), health system strengthening, and other activities. Requires a report not later than 180 days after enactment with strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million for each FY22-FY26 to carry out these efforts. Requires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to develop and implement an initiative to encourage and support efforts by the Pacific Island to reduce and combat gender-based violence.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R.

3271Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan.

Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S. 1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S.

HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations. Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change.

Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health. And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Curbing China’s treatment Diplomacy ActTo prioritize the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.4362Rep.

Carlos Gimenez (R-FL-26)Referred to HFACbuy antibiotics, treatmentsRequires the Secretary of States to prioritize, in carrying out the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, distribution to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies, subject first to Administration certification to Congress that it has determined all Americans have been afforded ample opportunity to be fully vaccinated against buy antibiotics. Requires the Secretary to ensure that not less than 25% of the total number of buy antibiotics treatment doses intended for international distribution are reserved for and distributed to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies and states the Secretary may not distribute any doses to other recipients or countries until the above have each received at least a first shipment of their reserved doses. States the Secretary may not distribute buy antibiotics treatment doses to any country which has a government that has been determined to have engaged in systemic or widespread human rights abuses. Terminates five days after the date on which the Secretary determines the above have each achieved 40% vaccination rates of their respective populations.Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2022(State/Foreign Ops – SFOPS Approps)Making appropriations for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.

4373Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Passed House, received in the SenateAppropriationsSee KFF summary. Includes the text of the Global Health, Empowerment, and Rights (Global HER) Act (H.R. 556), which codifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2022(Labor/HHS – LHHS Approps)Making appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/19/2021H.R. 4502Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT-3)Passed HouseAppropriationsSee KFF summary.Global Autism ActTo establish a Global Autism Assistance Program.6/24/2021H.R.

4160Rep. Christopher Smith (R-NJ-4)Referred to HFACAutismEstablishes a health and education grant program known as the Global Autism Assistance Program at USAID to support activities focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in developing countries and to establish a program, known as Train the Trainers, to train health and education professionals working with children with ASD in developing countries. Outlines designation of eligible regions and selection of implementing NGO and activities it may carry out with the grant. Requires the implementing NGO to establish a Project Advisory Board to review local applications for content and appropriateness.

To carry out this program, requires the USAID Administrator to allocate amounts that have been appropriated or otherwise made available to USAID. Requires an annual report on activities.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R. 556Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan.

2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S.

Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer).

States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R.

391Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S. Policy to promote and invest in global health security and cipro preparedness as a core national security interest. Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings.

Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies. Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position. Requires a U.S.

Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation. Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N. Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and cipro preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism. Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties.

Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S. On the Executive Board. Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements.

Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment. And authorizes U.S. Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global Malnutrition Prevention and Treatment Act of 2021To advance targeted and evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of global malnutrition and to improve the coordination of such programs, and for other purposes.07/26/2021H.R.

4693Rep. Michael McCaul (R-TX-10)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)MalnutritionAuthorizes the USAID Administrator to support efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition globally, including by targeting resources and nutrition interventions to support the most vulnerable populations susceptible to severe malnutrition, including children under the age of 5 and pregnant and lactating women. Directs the Administrator and others to coordinate with bilateral and multilateral donors, governments of partner countries, U.N. Agencies, and others to prevent and treat malnutrition globally.

Requires the Administrator and others to seek to leverage additional resources to this end by increasing interagency cooperation among relevant departments and agencies represented in the Global Nutrition Coordination Plan. Requires the selection of priority countries and outlines criteria. Express Sense of Congress that efforts to undertake nutrition interventions in countries not selected as priority countries should continue. Authorizes the establishment of the Nutrition Leadership Council within USAID and outlines its duties and membership.

Requires the development of an implementation plan. Requires an annual progress report for five years.Global cipro Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R. 3424Rep.

Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACcipro, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with cipro potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global cipro Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCcipro, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with cipro potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level.

Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S.

Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S. Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community.

And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/8/2021H.R. 3800Rep.

Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H. JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.

And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021H.R. 3373Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Referred to HFAC, H. Veterans’ Affairs, H.

Natural Resources, H. Armed Services, H. Financial Services, H. Judiciary, H.

Transportation and Infrastructure, H. Homeland SecurityPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues.

Requires a report on these efforts annually. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021S. 1774Sen.

Brian Schatz (D-HI)Read twice and referred to SFRCPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually.

Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen.

Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S. Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International cipro Preparedness and buy antibiotics Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S.

2297Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderscipro preparedness, buy antibiotics, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, buy antibiotics treatments to other countries. Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to buy antibiotics and outlines specific elements of the U.S.

Government’s country-level response to the buy antibiotics cipro. In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S. With cipro potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers.

Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity. Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and cipro and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC.

Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S. International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global cipro prevention, preparedness and response framework. Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S. Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S.

Global health security strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct. 1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S. Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S.

Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and cipro prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below). Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening. Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems.

Authorizes the U.S. To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of buy antibiotics variants. Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S.

By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with cipro potential. Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and cipro potential. Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S.

Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose. Limits the U.S. Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep.

Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S.

Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group.

Describes the Group’s duties and members. States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity.

Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S. Foreign assistance.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future cipros, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R. 3778Rep.

Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commercebuy antibiotics, global health security, cipro preparedness and responseEstablishes the cipro preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the buy antibiotics cipro and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with cipro potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others.

Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics cipro worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future cipros. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future cipros. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S.

treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally.

Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future cipros, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S. 1976Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibiotics, global health security, cipro preparedness and responseEstablishes the cipro preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S.

Global health response to the buy antibiotics cipro and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with cipro potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics cipro worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future cipros. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future cipros.

Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance.

Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S.

1683Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S. Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S.

To oppose efforts to transfer U.S. Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments. Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of buy antibiotics proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future cipros Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R.

151Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H. Energy and Commerce, H. Judiciary, H.

Ways and Means, H. Financial Services, H. Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health.

States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems.

Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future cipros Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S. 37Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement.

Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities.

Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R. 534Rep.

Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S. To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S.

137Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S. Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives.

Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030. States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties. Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R. 3576Rep.

Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning.

Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S. 1864Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept.

Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S.

And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to cipro ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the buy antibiotics cipro.2/11/2021H.R. 986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H. Financial Servicesbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S.

Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics cipro, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics cipro.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R. 2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCResearch &. Development (R&D), global health security, cipro, epidemicAuthorizes U.S.

Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI). Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S. Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S. Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S.

Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things. Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S. Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China. 4/15/2021S.

1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Ordersbuy antibiotics, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the buy antibiotics cipro. States U.S.

Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of buy antibiotics, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations. States it is U.S. Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to buy antibiotics and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to cipros and other public health challenges.

States it is U.S. Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the buy antibiotics cipro to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment. Requires strategies that describe how the U.S.

Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO. Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S. Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things. States it is U.S.

Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the buy antibiotics cipro.Support for Global Financial Institution cipro Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the buy antibiotics–19 cipro.1/27/2021S. 67Sen.

Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics cipro, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics cipro.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep. Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for cipro prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S. 290Sen.

Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACciproRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for cipro prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S. In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R. 1145Rep. Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S.

812Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar Under General OrdersWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R. 497Rep. Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S.

In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including. WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the buy antibiotics cipro, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S. CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes.

4/19/2021S. 1201Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things. Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups.

States U.S. Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S. To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things.

Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R. 3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H. JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S.

Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S. And China are members, including at the U.N. Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights. Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S.

Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories. Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N. Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things. Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region.

Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H.

Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls. Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights. Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health.

Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change. Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the buy antibiotics–19 cipro, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep. Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, buy antibioticsProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S.

Contributions to WHO or U.S. Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the buy antibiotics outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the cipro.NOTES. SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs.

SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs. LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization. ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

* Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..

About This cipro price canada TrackerThis tracker provides the number of confirmed cases and deaths from novel antibiotics by country, the trend in confirmed case and death counts by country, and a global map showing which countries have confirmed cases and deaths. The data are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) antibiotics Resource Center’s buy antibiotics Map and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) antibiotics Disease (buy antibiotics-2019) situation reports.This tracker will be updated regularly, as new data are released.Related Content. About buy antibiotics antibioticsIn late 2019, a new antibiotics emerged in central China to cause cipro price canada disease in humans. Cases of this disease, known as buy antibiotics, have since been reported across around the globe. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization cipro price canada (WHO) declared the cipro represents a public health emergency of international concern, and on January 31, 2020, the U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services declared it to be a health emergency for the United States.Global Health Legislation During the 117th Congress(as of Aug. 2, 2021)TitleDate IntroducedBill #SponsorStatusTopicSummary of Global Health-Related ProvisionsAbortion is Health Care Everywhere Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to authorize the use of funds for comprehensive reproductive health care services, and for other purposes.3/9/2021H.R. 1670Rep. Janice Schakowsky (D-IL-9)Referred to HFACAbortion, Helms amendmentIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding safe abortion and working to end unsafe abortion.

Repeals the Helms Amendment (which prohibits the use of foreign assistance to pay for the performance of abortion as a method of family planning or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortion). States that notwithstanding any other provision of law, certain funds may be used to provide comprehensive reproductive health care services, including abortion services, training, and equipment.Advancing Emergency Preparedness Through One Health Act of 2021To establish an interagency One Health Program, and for other purposes.3/18/2021S. 861Sen. Tina Smith (D-MN)Read twice and referred to S. HELPOne Health, global health securityRequires the heads of HHS, USDA, USAID, DoD, and certain other agencies to develop, publish, and submit to Congress a national One Health Framework for coordinated federal activities under the One Health Program not later than one year after enactment.

Among other things, states the framework must describe existing efforts and contain recommendations for building upon and complementing the activities of the CDC, the FDA, USAID, NIH, and certain others and also establish specific federal goals and priorities and describe specific activities required to achieve these. Requires the submission of an addendum to the framework not later than three years after its original submission, describing progress in advancing these activities. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as necessary to develop the framework above. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress not later than two years after the addendum is submitted, detailing existing collaborative efforts among certain agencies for this purpose and containing an evaluation of the framework and its specified activities.American Medical Investment Generating Overseas Security Act(AMIGOS Act)To prohibit the President from taking any action to support the waiver of obligations of members of the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19 unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics–19, and for other purposes.5/14/2021H.R. 3236Maria Elvira Salazar (R-FL-27)Referred to HFAC and H.

Ways and MeansTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsStates the President may not take any action to support waiver of obligations of WRO members under the TRIPS agreement in relation to the prevention, containment, mitigation, or treatment of buy antibiotics unless a statute is enacted expressly authorizing such a waiver with respect to such. Requires the President to allocate excess U.S. buy antibiotics treatments in a specified order of priority, with certain exceptions, and to monitor the allocation of such to ensure assisted governments provide treatments to their peoples in a timely manner and do not otherwise withhold them. Requires such treatments provided to foreign countries to be marked as assistance from the American people or the U.S. Government and to include a depiction of the flag of the U.S.

If appropriate.American Rescue Plan Act of 2021To provide for reconciliation pursuant to title II of S. Con. Res. 5.2/24/2021H.R. 1319Rep.

John Yarmuth (D-KY-3)Became law (P.L. 117-2)buy antibiotics, Global FundSee KFF summary.American Values ActTo permanently enact certain appropriations Act restrictions on the use of funds for abortions and involuntary sterilizations, and for other purposes.2/4/2021S. 239Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, involuntary sterilization amendment, Siljander amendment, Kemp-Kasten amendment, Peace Corps provision, Helms amendment, Biden amendmentAmends the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to codify in permanent law the Siljander amendment, which prohibits the use of funds to lobby for or against abortion, and the Kemp-Kasten amendment, which prohibits funding any organization or program, as determined by the President, that supports or participates in the management of a program of coercive abortion or involuntary sterilization. Restates the Helms amendment, the Involuntary Sterilization amendment (which prohibits the use of funds to pay for involuntary sterilizations as a method of family planning or to coerce or provide a financial incentive to anyone to undergo sterilization), and the Biden amendment (which states that funds may not be used for biomedical research related to methods of or the performance of abortion or involuntary sterilization as a means of family planning) that are already in permanent law.

Also amends the Peace Corps Act to codify in permanent law the Peace Corps provision, which prohibits Peace Corps funding from paying for an abortion for a Peace Corps volunteer or trainee, except in cases where the life of the woman is endangered by pregnancy or in cases of rape or incest. In the past these have been included only in annual State-Foreign Operations appropriations language. See also the KFF fact sheet on FP/RH statutory requirements and policies and the KFF explainer on UNFPA funding and Kemp-Kasten.Binational Health Strategies Act of 2021To amend the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission Act, with respect to preparedness for buy antibiotics–19 and other infectious diseases in the border region, and for other purposes.3/03/2021H.R. 1538Rep.. Veronica Escobar (D-TX-16)Referred to H.

Energy and HFACMexicoAuthorizes and directs the President to seek to begin negotiations with Mexico to amend an existing agreement addressing infectious disease preparedness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Area, with respect to buy antibiotics and other infectious diseases, specifically requiring the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission to submit a report on the border area’s response to buy antibiotics and requiring it to also develop and publicly publish a binational strategic plan that addresses how the area should strengthen its buy antibiotics response, sharing relevant health data, and how a buy antibiotics treatment should be disbursed throughout the area, among other things. Requires the Commission to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of the strategic plan and then to submit a report on actions taken each year. Requires the Commission to develop and publish a plan to prepare and respond to infectious diseases (other than buy antibiotics) within the border area, to update the plan at least once every three years for as long as necessary, and to publish what actions federal agencies in the U.S. And Mexico will take to facilitate implementation of this plan, with a report on actions taken each year required to be submitted.BLUE Pacific ActTo establish a comprehensive, long-term United States strategy and policy for the Pacific Islands, and for other purposes.5/4/2021H.R.

2967Rep. Ed Case (D-HI-1)Referred to HFAC, H. Ways and Means, H. Natural ResourcesPublic health capacity building, buy antibiotics, gender-based violenceStates U.S. Policy is to develop and commit to a comprehensive, multifaceted, and principled U.S.

Policy in the Pacific Islands that, among other things, assists the Pacific Islands in preventing and containing the spread of the buy antibiotics cipro. Requires the USAID Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of States, to develop and implement a strategy to assist the Pacific Islands in improving public health outcomes and building public health capacity, including in response to the buy antibiotics cipro. Requires the strategy include programming to address maternal and child health, family planning and reproductive health, gender-based violence, food security and nutrition, NCDs, NTDs, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, STDs, and zoonotic and emerging infectious disease threats, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), health system strengthening, and other activities. Requires a report not later than 180 days after enactment with strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $20 million for each FY22-FY26 to carry out these efforts.

Requires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to develop and implement an initiative to encourage and support efforts by the Pacific Island to reduce and combat gender-based violence.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/17/2021H.R. 3271Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA-8)Referred to H. Energy and CommerceClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health.

And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Climate Change Health Protection and Promotion Act of 2021To direct the Secretary of Health and Human Services to develop and implement a national strategic action plan and program to assist health professionals and systems in preparing for and responding to the public health effects of climate change, and for other purposes.5/19/2021S. 1702Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to S. HELPClimate change, global healthDirects Secretary of HHS to publish a strategic action plan and establish a climate change and health program (at CDC, in collaboration with other agencies, as appropriate) to ensure the public health and health care systems are prepared for and can respond to the impacts of climate change on health in the U.S. And other nations.

Requires the action plan include an assessment of U.S. Capacity to address climate change including, among other things, providing technical assistance and support for preparedness and response plans for the health threats of climate change in developing countries, and developing or strengthening domestic and international disease surveillance systems and monitoring capacity to respond to health-related impacts of climate change. Describes priority health actions for the climate and health program, including with regard to global health aspects of climate change. Requires periodic updates of action plan. Establishes science advisory board and its functions, including with regarding to international impacts of climate change on health.

And directs HHS Secretary to have National Academies prepare reports on topic, with the first due in one year and then every 4 years thereafter.Curbing China’s treatment Diplomacy ActTo prioritize the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.4362Rep. Carlos Gimenez (R-FL-26)Referred to HFACbuy antibiotics, treatmentsRequires the Secretary of States to prioritize, in carrying out the international distribution of buy antibiotics treatment doses, distribution to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies, subject first to Administration certification to Congress that it has determined all Americans have been afforded ample opportunity to be fully vaccinated against buy antibiotics. Requires the Secretary to ensure that not less than 25% of the total number of buy antibiotics treatment doses intended for international distribution are reserved for and distributed to Taiwan and crucial Latin American allies and states the Secretary may not distribute any doses to other recipients or countries until the above have each received at least a first shipment of their reserved doses. States the Secretary may not distribute buy antibiotics treatment doses to any country which has a government that has been determined to have engaged in systemic or widespread human rights abuses. Terminates five days after the date on which the Secretary determines the above have each achieved 40% vaccination rates of their respective populations.Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2022(State/Foreign Ops – SFOPS Approps)Making appropriations for the Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/6/2021H.R.

4373Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Passed House, received in the SenateAppropriationsSee KFF summary. Includes the text of the Global Health, Empowerment, and Rights (Global HER) Act (H.R. 556), which codifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer).

Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2022(Labor/HHS – LHHS Approps)Making appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and related agencies for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2022, and for other purposes.7/19/2021H.R. 4502Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-CT-3)Passed HouseAppropriationsSee KFF summary.Global Autism ActTo establish a Global Autism Assistance Program.6/24/2021H.R. 4160Rep. Christopher Smith (R-NJ-4)Referred to HFACAutismEstablishes a health and education grant program known as the Global Autism Assistance Program at USAID to support activities focused on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in developing countries and to establish a program, known as Train the Trainers, to train health and education professionals working with children with ASD in developing countries.

Outlines designation of eligible regions and selection of implementing NGO and activities it may carry out with the grant. Requires the implementing NGO to establish a Project Advisory Board to review local applications for content and appropriateness. To carry out this program, requires the USAID Administrator to allocate amounts that have been appropriated or otherwise made available to USAID. Requires an annual report on activities.Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021H.R. 556Rep.

Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S. Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S.

Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health, Empowerment and Rights Act(Global HER Act) To prohibit the application of certain restrictive eligibility requirements to foreign nongovernmental organizations with respect to the provision of assistance under part I of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.1/28/2021S. 142Sen. Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies prohibition of the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021, see KFF explainer). States that notwithstanding any provision of law, regulation, or policy, foreign non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall not be ineligible for certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act solely on the basis of health or medical services provided with non-U.S.

Funds (insofar as legal in country where provided and under U.S. Law) and shall not be subject to requirements relating to their use of non-U.S. Funds for advocacy and lobbying activities.*Global Health Security Act of 2021To authorize a comprehensive, strategic approach for United States foreign assistance to developing countries to strengthen global health security, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 391Rep. Gerald Connolly (D-VA-11)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, global health emergenciesStates it is U.S.

Policy to promote and invest in global health security and cipro preparedness as a core national security interest. Establishes a Global Health Security Agenda Interagency Review Council, designates members, responsibilities, and frequency of meetings. Designates a U.S. Coordinator for Global Health Security responsible for coordination of the interagency process for responding to global health security emergencies. Express Sense of Congress that the President should consider appointing an individual with significant background and expertise in public health or emergency response management to such position.

Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy, its implementation (including agency-specific plans), and an annual report on status of implementation. Directs the Secretary of State, Treasury Secretary, USAID Administrator, and HHS Secretary, among others, to seek to enter into negotiations with donors, relevant U.N. Agencies (including WHO), and other stakeholders to establish a fund for global health security and cipro preparedness as a multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism. Describes Fund’s Advisory Board, purpose, Executive Board and its makeup and duties.

Creates a Coordinator of U.S. Government activities to advance global health security, who shall be appointed by the President to represent the U.S. On the Executive Board. Outlines eligible partner country definition and Fund program objectives, supported activities, administration, including appointment of an Administrator appointed by the Executive Board, and transparency and accountability requirements. Requires reports to Congress on the Fund including a 6 month status report and then annual reports after the Fund’s establishment.

And authorizes U.S. Contributions to the Fund with a limit that the U.S. Share not exceed 33% of total contributions to the Fund cumulatively.Global Malnutrition Prevention and Treatment Act of 2021To advance targeted and evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of global malnutrition and to improve the coordination of such programs, and for other purposes.07/26/2021H.R. 4693Rep. Michael McCaul (R-TX-10)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported by Voice Vote)MalnutritionAuthorizes the USAID Administrator to support efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition globally, including by targeting resources and nutrition interventions to support the most vulnerable populations susceptible to severe malnutrition, including children under the age of 5 and pregnant and lactating women.

Directs the Administrator and others to coordinate with bilateral and multilateral donors, governments of partner countries, U.N. Agencies, and others to prevent and treat malnutrition globally. Requires the Administrator and others to seek to leverage additional resources to this end by increasing interagency cooperation among relevant departments and agencies represented in the Global Nutrition Coordination Plan. Requires the selection of priority countries and outlines criteria. Express Sense of Congress that efforts to undertake nutrition interventions in countries not selected as priority countries should continue.

Authorizes the establishment of the Nutrition Leadership Council within USAID and outlines its duties and membership. Requires the development of an implementation plan. Requires an annual progress report for five years.Global cipro Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021H.R. 3424Rep.

Grace Meng (D-NY-6)Referred to HFACcipro, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security, biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with cipro potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Global cipro Prevention and Biosecurity ActTo establish a global zoonotic disease task force, and for other purposes. 5/20/2021S.1737Sen. Chris Coons (D-DE)Read twice and referred to SFRCcipro, zoonotic diseases, One Health, global health security,biosecurityRequires the Secretary of State and USAID Administrator to work with certain relevant agency heads to coordinate, work with, and engage governments, multilateral entities, and certain others to prevent zoonotic spillover events through various actions such as addressing the commercial trade in wildlife, strengthening global capacity for detection of zoonotic diseases with cipro potential, and supporting the development of One Health systems at the community level. Establishes the global zoonotic disease task force and outlines its membership and their terms, duties (including developing and publishing a plan for global biosecurity and zoonotic disease prevention and response and expanding the scope of the global health security strategy to more robustly support the prevention of zoonotic spillover and to respond to zoonotic disease investigations and outbreaks by establishing a 10 year strategy), required reports from agencies to the task force as well as from the task force to Congress, and its termination date 7 years after the date of enactment or a later date that is not later than two years after that.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes.

6/9/2021S. 1996Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. And expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination.Greater Leadership Overseas for the Benefit of Equality Act of 2021(GLOBE Act of 2021)To protect human rights and enhance opportunities for LGBTQI people around the world, and for other purposes. 6/8/2021H.R.

3800Rep. Dina Titus (D-NV-1)Referred to HFAC, H. JudiciaryLGBTQI health, HIV, Mexico City policyRequires equal access of all elements of the population to programs funded by U.S. Assistance, including global health programs.Also requires PEPFAR to. Be implemented in a way that equitably serves LGBTQI people, submit a report to Congress describing international prosecutions for sex work or consensual sexual activity based on commodities provided by PEPFAR or other U.S.

Support, and submit a report to Congress on HIV/AIDS-related index testing. Requires GAO to submit a report to Congress that describes the impact of the implementation and enforcement of any iteration of the Mexico City Policy on the global LGBTQI community. Expresses Sense of Congress regarding the U.S. Engaging international organizations in efforts to eliminate LGBTQI discrimination. And repeals the Mexico City policy by removing certain limitations on eligibility for foreign assistance.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021H.R.

3373Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Referred to HFAC, H. Veterans’ Affairs, H. Natural Resources, H. Armed Services, H.

Financial Services, H. Judiciary, H. Transportation and Infrastructure, H. Homeland SecurityPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security.

Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program. Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.Honoring OCEANIA ActTo strengthen United States engagement in the Oceania region and enhance the security and resilience of allies and partners of the Oceania community, and for other purposes.5/20/2021S. 1774Sen.

Brian Schatz (D-HI)Read twice and referred to SFRCPublic health capacity building, global health securityStates it is U.S. Policy to, among other things, improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Requires the Secretary of State, in consultation with the HHS Secretary, to establish a program to support building public health capacity and improving access to care and local health outcomes in Oceania related to maternal and child health, STDs, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, NTDs, NCDs, gender-based violence, substance use disorder, mortality due to epidemics, disasters, and the impacts from severe weather and environmental change, and other health issues. Requires a report on these efforts annually. Authorizes to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the program.

Requires amounts appropriated or made available to remain available under expended.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/22/2021H.R. 1201Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA-47)Referred to HFACLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S.

Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International Human Rights Defense Act of 2021To establish in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the Department of State a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Peoples, and for other purposes.2/24/2021S. 424Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to SFRCLGBTI health, HIVIncludes statement of U.S. Policy regarding LGBTI issues globally, including employing a multisectoral approach to preventing and responding to criminalization, discrimination, and violence against LGBTI people internationally, including activities in the health sector. Authorizes the provision of U.S.

Assistance to prevent and respond to these issues internationally, including enhancement of health sector capacity related to violence against LGBTI people and communities and to combat HIV.International cipro Preparedness and buy antibiotics Response Act of 2021To improve global health, and for other purposes.6/24/2021S. 2297Sen. James Risch (R-ID)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orderscipro preparedness, buy antibiotics, treatments, WHO, health systems strengthening, CEPI, global health security, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and malariaRequires a report describing certain foreign assistance obligated/expended under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 and a plan for certain remaining funds. Requires development of a strategy to expand access to, and accelerate the global distribution of, buy antibiotics treatments to other countries. Requires a report that assesses the global humanitarian response to buy antibiotics and outlines specific elements of the U.S.

Government’s country-level response to the buy antibiotics cipro. In the event of an infectious disease outbreak outside the U.S. With cipro potential, states the President should designate the Department of State to serve as the lead for diplomatic engagement and related foreign policy efforts, USAID to serve as the key lead agency for design and implementation of the U.S. International response, relief, and recovery assistance, and the CDC to serve as the public health lead for the international response such as building up (in coordination with USAID) emergency operation centers. Allows certain foreign assistance funding to be used to support USAID disaster surge capacity.

Requires a U.S. Global health security strategy and report. Authorizes to be established a committee on global health security and cipro and biological threats within the National Security Council (NSC) led by the Special Advisor for Global Health Security of the NSC. Within the Department of State, establishes a Special Representative for U.S. International activities to advance global health security and diplomacy overseas, to be appointed by the President and report to the Secretary of State and to lead in developing a global cipro prevention, preparedness and response framework.

Authorizes the Representative to transfer and allocate certain U.S. Foreign assistance funding to the relevant departments and agencies implementing the U.S. Global health security strategy. Authorizes to be appropriated $3 billion for the five-year period beginning Oct. 1, 2022, to support enhancing preparedness in partner countries, replenishing the USAID Emergency Reserve Fund, U.S.

Contributions to the World Bank Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Multi-Donor Fund, and U.S. Contributions to a new multilateral, catalytic financing mechanism for global health security and cipro prevention and preparedness (see “the Fund” below). Requires U.S. Global health program leadership identify areas of collaboration and coordination to ensure that such activities contribute to health systems strengthening. Directs the Secretary of State, with the USAID Administrator, to work with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Gavi, the treatment Alliance, bilateral donors, and others to develop shared core indicators for strengthened health systems.

Authorizes the U.S. To participate in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). Expresses Sense of Congress that the President should make an immediate contribution to CEPI of $300 million to expand research and development of treatments to combat the spread of buy antibiotics variants. Requires an annual National Intelligence Estimate (for five years) regarding the risks posed to the national security interests of the U.S. By the emergence, reemergence, and overseas transmission of pathogens with cipro potential.

Requires the Secretary of State and others to work with WHO and other key stakeholders to establish or strengthen effective early warning systems for infectious disease threats with epidemic and cipro potential. Directs the Secretary of State, with the HHS Secretary, to work with WHO and like-minded member states to adopt an approach toward assessing infectious disease threats under the International Health Regulations (2005) for the WHO to identify and transparently communicate on an ongoing basis varying levels of risk leading up to, and during and after, a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declaration. Directs the Secretary of State and others to seek to enter into negotiations to establish “the Fund;” authorizes the President to make available for U.S. Contributions to the Fund such funds as may be appropriated or otherwise made available for such purpose. Limits the U.S.

Contribution to the Fund to not exceed 33% of the total contributions from all sources.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021H.R. 3988Rep. Theodore Deutch (D-FL-22)Referred to HFACMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members.

States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance.Mental Health in International Development and Humanitarian Settings Act(MINDS Act)To enhance mental health and psychosocial support within United States foreign assistance programs.6/17/2021S. 2105Sen. Robert Casey (D-PA)Read twice and referred to SFRCMental health, children in adversity, buy antibioticsExpresses Sense of Congress that mental health is integral and essential to overall health outcomes and other development objectives. Codifies the position of USAID coordinator for mental health and psychosocial support and describes the position’s duties, including establishing a Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Working Group. Describes the Group’s duties and members.

States U.S. Policy is to integrate mental health and psychosocial support across all foreign assistance programs funded by the U.S.. Requires USAID and the Department of State regional bureaus and missions to utilize such policy for local capacity building, as appropriate and that such programming be evidence-based and culturally competent and respond to the specific needs of children in adversity. Requires USAID to brief Congress on progress and challenges to implementation, including programming in conflict and humanitarian settings, as well as the impact of buy antibiotics on programming. Requires the USAID Administrator in consultation with the OMB Director to brief Congress annually for five years (FY22 – FY26) on spending for this programming in U.S.

Foreign assistance.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act)To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future cipros, and for other purposes.6/8/2021H.R. 3778Rep. Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL-8)Referred to HFAC and H. Energy and Commercebuy antibiotics, global health security, cipro preparedness and responseEstablishes the cipro preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the buy antibiotics cipro and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with cipro potential.

Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others. Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics cipro worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future cipros. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future cipros. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S.

treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible. Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S.

Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Nullifying Opportunities for Variants to Infect and Decimate Act(NOVID Act) To establish a program to oversee the global buy antibiotics response and prepare for future cipros, and for other purposes.6/8/2021S. 1976Sen. Jeff Merkley (D-OR)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibiotics, global health security, cipro preparedness and responseEstablishes the cipro preparedness and response program to be responsible for and provide oversight over the U.S. Global health response to the buy antibiotics cipro and protect Americans from the emergence of buy antibiotics variants and other pathogens with cipro potential. Require President to appoint program director who will coordinate the work of identified agencies, including USAID, CDC, and the Department of State, among others.

Requires development of a comprehensive strategy to end the buy antibiotics cipro worldwide as well as a long-term strategy for preventing future cipros. Authorizes to be appropriated $34 billion for these efforts, and expresses Sense of Congress that $25 billion be made available to scale treatment manufacturing capacity and produce treatments, $8.5 billion to cover the cost of end-to-end delivery and administration of treatments in target countries, and $500 million to establish a global disease surveillance network to protect against future cipros. Describes implementation of comprehensive strategy, including requiring director to ensure immediate release of 80 million treatment doses that the U.S. Has already committed to send abroad and to reassess the U.S. treatment stockpile to determine whether further treatments can be sent abroad and to coordinate with BARDA to rapidly scale manufacturing capacity around the world to produce 8 billion treatment doses as soon as possible.

Also requires director to ensure equitable access to treatments in collaboration with COVAX and to work with international partners to provide enough treatments to lower- and middle-income countries to fully vaccinate at least 60% of their respective populations, especially 92 countries identified by COVAX as being most in need of assistance. Requires the program to, among other things, build on PEPFAR and other existing U.S. Programs and relationships bilaterally and multilaterally. Express Sense of Congress that in the face of a global health emergency, the U.S. Government has broad authority, including under the Defense Production Act and the “Bayh-Dole Act”, to ensure adequate supply of treatments, necessary components, and raw materials through technology sharing and direct collaboration with manufacturers around the world.Preventing Foreign Attempts To Erode Healthcare Innovation ActTo prohibit the use of funds to support a measure at the World Trade Organization waiving intellectual property rights, and for other purposes.5/18/2021S.

1683Sen. Tim Scott (R-SC)Read twice and referred to S. FinanceTRIPS, WTO, intellectual property rights, buy antibiotics treatmentsExpresses Sense of Congress that U.S. Should continue to promote strong international [sic] property rights internationally and that it is in the national interest of the U.S. To oppose efforts to transfer U.S.

Intellectual property and technology to China or other countries seeking to profit off U.S. Investments. Prohibits use of funds to support, allow, or facilitate the negotiation or approval of the TRIPS waiver for the prevention, containment, and treatment of buy antibiotics proposed by India and South Africa or any other measure at the WTO to waive intellectual property rights.Preventing Future cipros Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/4/2021H.R. 151Rep. Mike Quigley (D-IL-5)Referred to HFAC, H.

Energy and Commerce, H. Judiciary, H. Ways and Means, H. Financial Services, H. Natural ResourcesGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement.

Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health. States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems.

Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks.. Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Preventing Future cipros Act of 2021To address the public health risks posed by wildlife markets, and for other purposes.1/25/2021S. 37Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX)Read twice and referred to SFRCGlobal health security, One Health, zoonotic diseasesRequires the HHS Secretary to enter into an agreement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for it to conduct a study on the risk of wildlife markets on the emergency of novel viral pathogens, to be submitted not later than one year after the date of agreement. Expresses Sense of Congress that global institutions, including WHO, and others including USAID should promote the paradigm of One Health.

States U.S. Policy is to facilitate international cooperation to close high risk wildlife markets around that world and to work to develop agreements and protocols to close these markets. Allows the President to impose sanctions on any country (or nationals of a country) continuing to license or enable commercial wildlife markets or engaged in certain activities. Authorizes FY 2021 – FY 2030 funding for USAID activities related to sustainable food systems. Requires the USAID administrator to increase activities related to biodiversity, global health, and resilience, among other things, in order to address the threats and causes of zoonotic disease outbreaks..

Requires reporting from the Department of State and USAID describing these efforts.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021H.R. 534Rep. Virginia Foxx (R-NC-5)Referred to HFACAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Protecting Life in Foreign Assistance ActTo restrict the availability of Federal funds to organizations associated with the abortion industry.1/28/2021S. 137Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT)Read twice and referred to SFRCAbortion, Mexico City policyCodifies the expanded Mexico City policy (rescinded by President Biden in Jan. 2021. See KFF explainer) and expands it to apply more broadly to federal funding made available for purposes outside of the U.S.

To 1) any foreign nonprofit organization, foreign nongovernmental organization, foreign multilateral organization, or foreign quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities, and 2) any domestic nonprofit organization or domestic nongovernmental organization that carries out certain activities.Reach Every Mother and Child ActTo amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to implement policies to end preventable maternal, newborn, and child deaths globally.4/29/2021S. 1451Sen. Susan Collins (R-ME)Read twice and referred to SFRCMaternal health, child healthIncludes statement of U.S. Policy to establish and implement a coordinated, integrated, and comprehensive strategy to end preventable child and maternal deaths and ensure healthy and productive lives. Requires the establishment and implementation of a five-year comprehensive strategy to contribute toward the global goal of ending preventable child and maternal deaths by 2030.

States the President should designate a Child and Maternal Survival Coordinator and describes their duties. Requires an annual report on progress.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/28/2021H.R. 3576Rep. Katherine Clark (D-MA-5)Referred to HFACState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things.

The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S. And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Reproductive Rights are Human Rights Act of 2021To amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to require a section on reproductive rights in the Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.5/26/2021S. 1864Sen.

Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCState Dept. Annual human rights report, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH), maternal mortality, abortion, violence against womenAmends existing law to require annual reporting by the Department of State on human rights to include, among other things. The status of reproductive rights in each country. Description of the rates and causes of pregnancy-related injuries and deaths (including deaths due to unsafe abortions), violence against women, and access to family planning. Requires that civil society and multilateral organizations’ representatives in the U.S.

And countries included in such reporting be consulted with during the preparation of annual reporting.Robust International Response to cipro ActTo provide support for a robust global response to the buy antibiotics cipro.2/11/2021H.R. 986Rep. Jesus “Chuy” Garcia (D-IL-4)Referred to H. Financial Servicesbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics cipro, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics cipro.Securing America From Epidemics Act(SAFE Act) To authorize United States participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, and for other purposes.3/23/2021H.R.

2118Rep. Ami Bera (D-CA-7)Passed House, read twice and referred to SFRCResearch &. Development (R&D), global health security, cipro, epidemicAuthorizes U.S. Participation in the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI). Reports to Congress required to be submitted by the President not later than 180 days after enactment of the Act and to outline planned U.S.

Contributions to CEPI, the manner and extent to which the U.S. Will participate in the governance of CEPI, and how participation in CEPI supports relevant U.S. Strategies and programs in health security and biodefense, among other things. Authorizes certain appropriated funding to be made available for U.S. Contributions to CEPI.Strategic Competition Act of 2021To address issues involving the People’s Republic of China.

4/15/2021S. 1169Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Ordersbuy antibiotics, health cooperation, WHO, global health security, abortion, forced sterilization, debt reliefExpresses sense of Congress that the U.S. Government should encourage other foreign governments to use the official and scientific names for the buy antibiotics cipro. States U.S.

Policy is to deepen cooperation between and among the U.S., Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Thailand, and Australia, including through scientific and health partnerships. Expresses sense of Congress that recent pledge from the first-ever Quad (Australia, India, Japan, U.S.) leaders meeting on March 12, 2021, to respond to the economic and health impacts of buy antibiotics, including expanding treatment production and equitable access, further advances cooperation among Quad nations. States it is U.S. Policy to stand with the nations of ASEAN as they respond to buy antibiotics and support greater cooperation in building capacity to prepare for and respond to cipros and other public health challenges. States it is U.S.

Policy to advocate and actively advance Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the World Health Assembly, among other bodies. Requires report on the origins of the buy antibiotics cipro to be submitted by the Director of National Intelligence, in coordination with the Secretary of State, HHS Secretary, and others, not later than 180 days after enactment. Requires strategies that describe how the U.S. Will enhance cooperation with Canada, the European Union, NATO, and European partner countries in managing relations with China, including detailing diplomatic efforts to work with them to track and counter Chinese attempts to exert influence across the multilateral system, including at WHO. Requires a strategy for countering and limiting Chinese influence in, and access to, the Middle East and North Africa, including efforts to encourage U.S.

Private sector and public-private partnerships in healthcare technology, among other things. States it is U.S. Policy to work with Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to advance shared alliance goals of the Oceania region concerning health, among other things, and to improve the local capacity of the countries of Oceania to address public health challenges and improve global health security. Address the imposition of sanctions with respect to systematic rape, coercive abortion, forced sterilization, or involuntary contraceptive implantation in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Addresses reporting related to debt relief via the International Development Association (IDA) for certain countries to respond to the buy antibiotics cipro.Support for Global Financial Institution cipro Response Act of 2021To support efforts by international financial institutions to provide a robust global response to the buy antibiotics–19 cipro.1/27/2021S.

67Sen. Richard Durbin (D-IL)Read twice and referred to SFRCbuy antibioticsDirects the Secretary of the Treasury to instruct U.S. Executive Directors at international financial institutions to ensure international financial institution support for a robust international response to the global buy antibiotics cipro, including to oppose the approval or endorsement of any loan, grant, document, or strategy that would lead to a decrease in health care spending or in any other spending that would impede the ability of any country to prevent or contain the spread of, or treat persons who are or may be infected with, the buy antibiotics cipro.Support UNFPA Funding ActTo authorize contributions to the United Nations Population Fund, and for other purposes.6/16/2021H.R. 3938Rep. Chrissy Houlahan (D-PA-6)Referred to HFACUNFPA, family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH)Includes statement of U.S.

Policy regarding financial support for UNFPA as a crucial part of U.S. Global health commitment. Authorizes appropriations for five years for an annual contribution to UNFPA to support core functions and programs.To amend the National Security Act of 1947 to require the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be responsible for cipro prevention and response, and for other purposes.2/8/2021S. 290Sen. Edward Markey (D-MA)Read twice and referred to HSGACciproRequires the President to designate an employee of the National Security Council to be the permanent coordinator for cipro prevention and response for the federal government, outlines duties, and grants them authority to represent the U.S.

In bilateral and multilateral discussions and agreements on relevant matters.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.2/18/2021H.R. 1145Rep. Young Kim (R-CA-39)Passed HFAC (Ordered to be Reported in the Nature of a Substitute by Voice Vote)WHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To direct the Secretary of State to develop a strategy to regain observer status for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, and for other purposes.3/17/2021S. 812Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar Under General OrdersWHO, TaiwanDirects the Department of State to include additional information in its annual reports concerning Taiwan’s participation at WHO’s World Health Assembly as an observer.To prohibit the use of funds to seek membership in the World Health Organization or to provide assessed or voluntary contributions to the World Health Organization.1/28/2021H.R.

497Rep. Jodey Arrington (R-TX-19)Referred to HFACWHOProhibits the use of federal funds to seek membership by the U.S. In WHO or to provide assessed or voluntary U.S. Contributions to WHO until such time as the President certifies that WHO meets certain conditions, including. WHO has adopted meaningful reforms to ensure that humanitarian assistance is not politicized and is to be provided to those with the most need, WHO is not under the control or significant malign influence of the Chinese Communist party, WHO is not involved in a coverup of the Chinese Communist Party’s response to the buy antibiotics cipro, WHO grants observer status to Taiwan, WHO does not divert humanitarian or medical supplies to Iran, North Korea, or Syria, and WHO has put in place mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability in its operations and eliminate waste, fraud, and abuse.United States Climate Leadership in International Mitigation, Adaptation, and Technology Enhancement Act of 2021(U.S.

CLIMATE Act) To restore the United States international leadership on climate change and clean energy, and for other purposes. 4/19/2021S. 1201Sen. Robert Menendez (D-NJ)Read twice and referred to SFRCClimate change, global healthRequires the Secretary of State, in consultation with other relevant agencies, to conduct biennial comprehensive evaluations of present and ongoing disruptions to the global climate system, including the scarcity of global natural resources including fresh water, global food, health, and energy insecurities and conditions that contribute to gender-based violence, among other things. Requires these evaluations to be used by the Secretary of State to inform the development and implementation of a climate security strategy, and to develop and implement plans to account for the impacts of climate change on global human health, fresh water, and marginalized groups.

States U.S. Policy is to ensure that the International Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Security Program (required to be established under the act by the Secretary of State, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator of USAID) provide resources to developing countries to support efforts that reduce the vulnerability and increase the resilience capacities of communities to the effects of climate change, including effects on water availability and health and diseases. Directs the Secretary of the Treasury to use the influence of the U.S. To ensure that the Green Climate Fund requires country recipients to submit investment plan that describes how adaptation projects will advance public health outcomes, among other things. Incorporates the Women and Climate Change Act.Uyghur Stop Oppressive Sterilizations Act(Uyghur SOS Act) To address state-sanctioned violence against women in the People’s Republic of China, including rape and torture in detention and forced sterilizations, forced abortions, and other coercive birth restriction policies, particularly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and for other purposes.5/18/2021H.R.

3306Rep. Vicky HartzlerReferred to HFAC and H. JudiciaryForced sterilization, abortionStates U.S. Policy is to regard the prevention of genocide and other atrocity crimes as a national interest particularly when those actions target certain groups in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region through, among other things, forced sterilizations, forced abortions and other coercive birth restrictions policies, and sexual violence and other torture in detention, to raise the issue of state-sanctioned violence against women, including rape, torture, and coercively enforced population control policies in China in all multilateral organizations where the U.S. And China are members, including at the U.N.

Security Council, and to consider state-sanctioned violence against women, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and the systematic use of rape and torture in mass internment camps in the Region as a gross violation of internationally-recognized human rights. Expresses the Sense of Congress that all governments, including the U.S., and international organizations, such as the U.N., should call the atrocities perpetuated by the government of China, including forced sterilizations and forced abortions and other sexual violence, as genocide and crimes against humanity and that the U.S. Should strongly condemn the intimidation and threats targeting Uyghur and Kazakh women who provide public evidence of sexual violence and forced sterilizations and forced abortions in mass internment camps and the journalist who report these stories. Also expresses Sense of Congress that U.N. Member states should condemn such atrocities by demanding that China end all forced sterilization, forced abortions, and other state-sanctioned violence against women, among other things.

Requires the president to submit a strategy for ending atrocity crimes in the Region. Requires the Secretary of State to provide all appropriate assistance to women who belong to certain groups and who experienced sexual violence, torture, forced sterilizations and forced abortions in China in order for them to receive needed medical care and psychological support. Requires all existing authorities to be used to allow such women to at least temporarily enter the U.S.Women and Climate Change Act of 2021To address the disparate impact of climate change on women and support the efforts of women globally to address climate change, and for other purposes.1/11/2021H.R. 260Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA-13)Referred to HFAC, H.

Energy &. CommerceClimate change, global health, reproductive healthAddresses climate change and its effects on women and girls. Establishes the Federal Interagency Working Group on Women and Climate Change within the Department of State and outlines its functions, such as identifying best practices for collecting data on the disparate impact of climate change on women – including in access to comprehensive health care, including reproductive health and rights. Requires the Department of State’s Office of Global Women’s Issues (GWI) to submit a strategy (and shortly thereafter an implementation plan and budget) to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change on women, including effective action to promote public health. Requires the Ambassador-at-Large of GWI to designate a Senior Coordinator for Women and Climate Change.

Requires the GWI Ambassador and the Senior Coordinator to submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the human and financial resources necessary to carry out the Act.World Health Organization Accountability ActTo prohibit the availability of United States contributions to the World Health Organization until Congress receives a full report on China and the buy antibiotics–19 cipro, and for other purposes.1/21/2021H.R. 374Rep. Lauren Boebert (R-CO-3)Referred to HFACWHO, buy antibioticsProhibits the use of federal funds for U.S. Contributions to WHO or U.S. Participation in any of the activities of WHO until the Secretary of State and HHS Secretary jointly submit a report to Congress describing the manner and extent to which the handling of the buy antibiotics outbreak prior to March 11, 2020, by WHO and China contributed to the emergency of the cipro.NOTES.

SFRC means Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. HFAC means the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. H. Means House. S.

Means Senate. SFOPS means Department of State, foreign operations, and related programs. LGBTI means lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or intersex. WHO is the World Health Organization. ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

* Other than those that apply to U.S. NGOs receiving certain foreign aid under the Foreign Assistance Act..

Cipro lawsuits settlements

The adverse effects of childhood cipro lawsuits settlements http://www.tpsmedical.co.uk/slot-of-vegas-no-deposit-codes/ obesity are considerable, both during childhood and in the longer term. Children with obesity have a higher risk of psychological morbidity, and are more likely to be obese and have cardiovascular risk factors as adults.1 The importance of childhood conditions more generally (and social and geographical inequalities in these conditions) for population health is increasingly recognised and prioritised among both academic and policy-oriented audiences.2 3 The Sure Start Children’s Centres in England are a good example of initiatives that were designed to deal with this, with prevention of obesity and reduction of health inequalities being among the aims of the centres.4 5 However, spending cuts may have threatened the capacity of the centres to achieve these aims, in the same way that spending cuts in other domains have had detrimental effects on health inequalities.6 7Mason et al8 have provided an excellent and meticulously presented analysis of the impact of cuts to local government spending on Sure Start Children’s Centres on childhood …High-quality population-based surveillance studies such as the buy antibiotics Survey and Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission Study primarily serve the purpose of generating timely and accurate estimates of the buy antibiotics and transmission rates. However, describing the evolution of the buy antibiotics cipro is a different objective from understanding its multidimensional impact on people’s lives and describing the post-buy antibiotics trajectories of the cipro lawsuits settlements population. Surveillance studies can neither be used to study the buy antibiotics period effect within life course and ageing perspectives nor be informative about a multitude of buy antibiotics related impacts and implications beyond the short-term health impact.Against this backdrop, multidisciplinary population-based longitudinal studies can substantially add to our knowledge of the buy antibiotics cipro and its impact.

In the UK, many population-based longitudinal studies have only recently incorporated serological tests and this impedes their ability to provide accurate cipro lawsuits settlements estimates of buy antibiotics status over the entire cipro period. However, there are important dimensions of the buy antibiotics cipro that population-based longitudinal studies are well placed to study. Below I discuss some of these dimensions.The dimension of timeThe buy antibiotics cipro has short-term, medium-term and long-term implications. To fully understand them, one needs rich data that cover cipro lawsuits settlements the buy antibiotics period.

They also need an appropriate pre-buy antibiotics comparison basis, that is, data about how the population was doing before buy antibiotics. In the UK, several high-quality population-based longitudinal studies offer such cipro lawsuits settlements data. For example, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) has collected rich individual-level health, behavioural and social data from a representative sample aged ≥50 years over a period of 20 years, from 2002 to today. These data can be used to cipro lawsuits settlements study the effect of buy antibiotics cipro on older people’s lives and health in a much fuller way.Regarding the future, the experience and legacy of buy antibiotics are expected to influence our lives in multiple ways in the years to come.

We will have to live with the consequences of the buy antibiotics cipro. Thus, a priority for future research will be to investigate the long-term impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on the population. Population-based longitudinal studies offer an excellent platform to study this impact and have a lot to offer to that end.Conceptualising the impact of the buy antibiotics ciproThe population impact of buy antibiotics is greater than the cipro lawsuits settlements morbidity and mortality experienced by patients with buy antibiotics and the buy antibiotics associated burden to the health system. A population-based longitudinal study should ideally be able to provide unbiased information on the trajectories of patients who have survived buy antibiotics but also on the multidimensional impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on the entire population.

Longitudinal information on as many of the following life domains as possible is necessary to generate a fuller picture of cipro lawsuits settlements this impact and identify intervention targets. Family and social life. Social relationships cipro lawsuits settlements. Time use and resource availability.

Health behaviours. Physical and cipro lawsuits settlements cheap cipro pills mental health and well-being. Disability and survival. Unemployment, socioeconomic position and cipro lawsuits settlements poverty.

Labour force participation. Housing. Health services and social care use and quality of care received. And a series of psychosocial domains including loneliness, social exclusion and discrimination.

This list is not exhaustive but gives an idea of the life domains that the buy antibiotics cipro has affected and the challenges policy makers, non-governmental organisations and the research community must face. In the UK, several population-based longitudinal studies have collected data on many of these domains on multiple occasions including during the cipro and can successfully be used to study the multidimensional impact of buy antibiotics.Socioeconomic inequalities and buy antibioticsContrary to the first impression, buy antibiotics is not a leveller that affects all people equally.1–4 There are socioeconomic inequalities in buy antibiotics risk, patterns and severity.1–5 buy antibiotics related mortality is unequally distributed with disadvantaged people having a greater risk of severe buy antibiotics and death.1 3 4It is now clear that the association between socioeconomic inequalities and the buy antibiotics cipro is complex and goes well beyond the direct link between social disadvantage and increased buy antibiotics risk and poorer buy antibiotics prognosis.2 3 The buy antibiotics Marmot review provides an excellent overview of this complex association.3 One of its main findings is that buy antibiotics and containment measures made more visible and worsened existing socioeconomic inequalities in health. Population-based longitudinal studies offer the appropriate framework to build on these initial findings and substantially add to our understanding of the complex interaction between socioeconomic position and other social determinants of health, buy antibiotics and the buy antibiotics containment measures over time. Questions around the long-term effect of the buy antibiotics cipro on socioeconomic inequalities in health and the social distribution of health in the post-cipro era can only be answered using longitudinal data from population-based studies.Ageing and buy antibioticsOlder people are more vulnerable to buy antibiotics.6–8 Biologically, this vulnerability can be attributed to degenerative ageing processes and their manifestations in the form of multimorbidity and immune system dysfunction.9 In the absence of a better strategy, a focus on disease prevention in combination with vaccination programmes appears to be an effective way to protect older people and reduce the impact of buy antibiotics.

A focus on mental health should also be an integral part of the fight against the buy antibiotics cipro and an ageing-related priority in the post-cipro era.Beyond the increased risk of severe buy antibiotics and death, there is need to know more about the ways the cipro has affected older people. This includes examining the effect of buy antibiotics and containment measures on older people’s life, physical and mental health and well-being as well as on the way people age, their experiences with ageing, expectations and ageing identity and perceptions. The buy antibiotics cipro has also affected the way the world perceives ageing and older people.10 11To get a fuller picture of buy antibiotics as a determinant of the ageing process, its effect on age-related and ageing-related domains such as disability, frailty, multimorbidity, end of life, independent living, retirement, well-being, health behaviours, loneliness and social exclusion needs to be examined. Longitudinal studies like ELSA, the Health and Retirement Study and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe can uniquely contribute to the study of buy antibiotics as a disease of the ageing population and unpack the multidimensional effect of buy antibiotics on population ageing.In conclusion, buy antibiotics is a new disease, and we need to know more about it and its consequences.

Within this context, a consortium of UK population-based longitudinal studies was recently funded to study long buy antibiotics (https://bit.ly/3em683q). We also need to better understand the multidimensional impact of the buy antibiotics containment measures such as social distancing and lockdowns on people’s lives.Population-based surveillance studies serve the purpose of generating data on buy antibiotics frequency and describing the evolution of the cipro and its immediate health impact. They cannot be informative of the impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on socioeconomic inequalities on health, ageing, well-being, disability, social relationships and social exclusion. Furthermore, they can only generate a partial account of the impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on physical and mental health and survival.

To fully understand these complex associations and be able to design preventive strategies and effectively intervene, high-quality longitudinal data that describe the life and health trajectories of people over time, from the pre-buy antibiotics to the post-buy antibiotics era, are needed. In the UK, there are several high-quality population-based longitudinal studies that offer such data, and they should be an integral part of the national buy antibiotics research infrastructure.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.AcknowledgmentsThe author would like to thank Professor Andrew Steptoe for his helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript..

The adverse effects cipro online without prescription of childhood obesity cipro price canada are considerable, both during childhood and in the longer term. Children with obesity have a higher risk of psychological morbidity, and are more likely to be obese and have cardiovascular risk factors as adults.1 The importance of childhood conditions more generally (and social and geographical inequalities in these conditions) for population health is increasingly recognised and prioritised among both academic and policy-oriented audiences.2 3 The Sure Start Children’s Centres in England are a good example of initiatives that were designed to deal with this, with prevention of obesity and reduction of health inequalities being among the aims of the centres.4 5 However, spending cuts may have threatened the capacity of the centres to achieve these aims, in the same way that spending cuts in other domains have had detrimental effects on health inequalities.6 7Mason et al8 have provided an excellent and meticulously presented analysis of the impact of cuts to local government spending on Sure Start Children’s Centres on childhood …High-quality population-based surveillance studies such as the buy antibiotics Survey and Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission Study primarily serve the purpose of generating timely and accurate estimates of the buy antibiotics and transmission rates. However, describing the evolution of the buy antibiotics cipro is a different objective from understanding its multidimensional impact on people’s lives and cipro price canada describing the post-buy antibiotics trajectories of the population. Surveillance studies can neither be used to study the buy antibiotics period effect within life course and ageing perspectives nor be informative about a multitude of buy antibiotics related impacts and implications beyond the short-term health impact.Against this backdrop, multidisciplinary population-based longitudinal studies can substantially add to our knowledge of the buy antibiotics cipro and its impact.

In the UK, many population-based longitudinal studies have only recently incorporated serological tests and this impedes their ability to provide accurate estimates of buy antibiotics status cipro price canada over the entire cipro period. However, there are important dimensions of the buy antibiotics cipro that population-based longitudinal studies are well placed to study. Below I discuss some of these dimensions.The dimension of timeThe buy antibiotics cipro has short-term, medium-term and long-term implications. To fully cipro price canada understand them, one needs rich data that cover the buy antibiotics period.

They also need an appropriate pre-buy antibiotics comparison basis, that is, data about how the population was doing before buy antibiotics. In the cipro price canada UK, several high-quality population-based longitudinal studies offer such data. For example, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) has collected rich individual-level health, behavioural and social data from a representative sample aged ≥50 years over a period of 20 years, from 2002 to today. These data can be used to study the effect of cipro price canada buy antibiotics cipro on older people’s lives and health in a much fuller way.Regarding the future, the experience and legacy of buy antibiotics are expected to influence our lives in multiple ways in the years to come.

We will have to live with the consequences of the buy antibiotics cipro. Thus, a priority for future research will be to investigate the long-term impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on the population. Population-based longitudinal studies offer an cipro price canada excellent platform to study this impact and have a lot to offer to that end.Conceptualising the impact of the buy antibiotics ciproThe population impact of buy antibiotics is greater than the morbidity and mortality experienced by patients with buy antibiotics and the buy antibiotics associated burden to the health system. A population-based longitudinal study should ideally be able to provide unbiased information on the trajectories of patients who have survived buy antibiotics but also on the multidimensional impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on the entire population.

Longitudinal information on as many of the cipro price canada following life domains as possible is necessary to generate a fuller picture of this impact and identify intervention targets. Family and social life. Social relationships cipro price canada. Time use and resource availability.

Health behaviours. Physical and mental read the article health and cipro price canada well-being. Disability and survival. Unemployment, socioeconomic cipro price canada position and poverty.

Labour force participation. Housing. Health services and social care use and quality of care received. And a series of psychosocial domains including loneliness, social exclusion and discrimination.

This list is not exhaustive but gives an idea of the life domains that the buy antibiotics cipro has affected and the challenges policy makers, non-governmental organisations and the research community must face. In the UK, several population-based longitudinal studies have collected data on many of these domains on multiple occasions including during the cipro and can successfully be used to study the multidimensional impact of buy antibiotics.Socioeconomic inequalities and buy antibioticsContrary to the first impression, buy antibiotics is not a leveller that affects all people equally.1–4 There are socioeconomic inequalities in buy antibiotics risk, patterns and severity.1–5 buy antibiotics related mortality is unequally distributed with disadvantaged people having a greater risk of severe buy antibiotics and death.1 3 4It is now clear that the association between socioeconomic inequalities and the buy antibiotics cipro is complex and goes well beyond the direct link between social disadvantage and increased buy antibiotics risk and poorer buy antibiotics prognosis.2 3 The buy antibiotics Marmot review provides an excellent overview of this complex association.3 One of its main findings is that buy antibiotics and containment measures made more visible and worsened existing socioeconomic inequalities in health. Population-based longitudinal studies offer the appropriate framework to build on these initial findings and substantially add to our understanding of the complex interaction between socioeconomic position and other social determinants of health, buy antibiotics and the buy antibiotics containment measures over time. Questions around the long-term effect of the buy antibiotics cipro on socioeconomic inequalities in health and the social distribution of health in the post-cipro era can only be answered using longitudinal data from population-based studies.Ageing and buy antibioticsOlder people are more vulnerable to buy antibiotics.6–8 Biologically, this vulnerability can be attributed to degenerative ageing processes and their manifestations in the form of multimorbidity and immune system dysfunction.9 In the absence of a better strategy, a focus on disease prevention in combination with vaccination programmes appears to be an effective way to protect older people and reduce the impact of buy antibiotics.

A focus on mental health should also be an integral part of the fight against the buy antibiotics cipro and an ageing-related priority in the post-cipro era.Beyond the increased risk of severe buy antibiotics and death, there is need to know more about the ways the cipro has affected older people. This includes examining the effect of buy antibiotics and containment measures on older people’s life, physical and mental health and well-being as well as on the way people age, their experiences with ageing, expectations and ageing identity and perceptions. The buy antibiotics cipro has also affected the way the world perceives ageing and older people.10 11To get a fuller picture of buy antibiotics as a determinant of the ageing process, its effect on age-related and ageing-related domains such as disability, frailty, multimorbidity, end of life, independent living, retirement, well-being, health behaviours, loneliness and social exclusion needs to be examined. Longitudinal studies like ELSA, the Health and Retirement Study and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe can uniquely contribute to the study of buy antibiotics as a disease of the ageing population and unpack the multidimensional effect of buy antibiotics on population ageing.In conclusion, buy antibiotics is a new disease, and we need to know more about it and its consequences.

Within this context, a consortium of UK population-based longitudinal studies was recently funded to study long buy antibiotics (https://bit.ly/3em683q). We also need to better understand the multidimensional impact of the buy antibiotics containment measures such as social distancing and lockdowns on people’s lives.Population-based surveillance studies serve the purpose of generating data on buy antibiotics frequency and describing the evolution of the cipro and its immediate health impact. They cannot be informative of the impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on socioeconomic inequalities on health, ageing, well-being, disability, social relationships and social exclusion. Furthermore, they can only generate a partial account of the impact of buy antibiotics and containment measures on physical and mental health and survival.

To fully understand these complex associations and be able to design preventive strategies and effectively intervene, high-quality longitudinal data that describe the life and health trajectories of people over time, from the pre-buy antibiotics to the post-buy antibiotics era, are needed. In the UK, there are several high-quality population-based longitudinal studies that offer such data, and they should be an integral part of the national buy antibiotics research infrastructure.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.AcknowledgmentsThe author would like to thank Professor Andrew Steptoe for his helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript..

Cipro tendonitis how long

buy antibiotics has evolved cipro tendonitis how long rapidly into a cipro with global impacts. However, as the cipro has developed, it has become increasingly evident that the cipro tendonitis how long risks of buy antibiotics, both in terms of rates and particularly of severe complications, are not equal across all members of society. While general risk factors for hospital admission with buy antibiotics include age, male sex and specific comorbidities (eg, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes), there is increasing evidence that people identifying with Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groupsi have disproportionately higher risks of being adversely affected by buy antibiotics in the UK and the USA. The ethnic disparities include overall numbers of cases, as well as the relative numbers of critical care admissions and deaths.1In the area of mental health, for people from BAME groups, even before the current cipro cipro tendonitis how long there were already significant mental health inequalities.2 These inequalities have been increased by the cipro in several ways.

The constraints of quarantine have made access to traditional face-to-face support from mental health services more difficult in general. This difficulty will increase pre-existing inequalities where there are challenges to engaging people in care and in providing early access cipro tendonitis how long to services. The restrictions may also reduce the flexibility of care offers, given the need for social isolation, limiting non-essential travel and closure of routine clinics. The service impacts are compounded by constraints on the use of non-traditional or alternative routes to care and support.In addition, there is growing evidence of specific mental health cipro tendonitis how long consequences from significant buy antibiotics , with increased rates of not only post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, but also specific neuropsychiatric symptoms.3 Given the higher risks of mental illnesses and complex care needs among ethnic minorities and also in deprived inner city areas, buy antibiotics seems to deliver a double blow.

Physical and mental health vulnerabilities are inextricably linked, especially as a significant proportion of healthcare workers (including in mental health services) in the UK are from BAME groups.Focusing on mental health, there is very little buy antibiotics-specific guidance on the needs of patients in the BAME group. The risk to staff in general healthcare (including mental cipro tendonitis how long healthcare) is a particular concern, and in response, the Royal College of Psychiatrists and NHS England have produced a report on the impact of buy antibiotics on BAME staff in mental healthcare settings, with guidance on assessment and management of risk using an associated risk assessment tool for staff.4 5However, there is little formal guidance for the busy clinician in balancing different risks for individual mental health patients and treating appropriately. Thus, for example, an inpatient clinician may want to know whether a patient who is older, has additional comorbidities and is from an ethnic background, should be started on one antipsychotic medication or another, or whether treatments such as vitamin D prophylaxis or treatment and venous thromboembolism prevention should be started earlier in the context of the buy antibiotics cipro. While syntheses of the existing guidelines are available about buy antibiotics and mental health,6 7 there is nothing specific about the healthcare needs of patients from ethnic minorities during the cipro.To fill this gap, we propose three core actions cipro tendonitis how long that may help:Ensure good information and psychoeducation packages are made available to those with English as a second language, and ensure health beliefs and knowledge are based on the best evidence available.

Address culturally grounded explanatory models and illness perceptions to allay fears and worry, and ensure timely access to testing and care if needed.Maintain levels of service, flexibility in care packages, and personal cipro tendonitis how long relationships with patients and carers from ethnic minority backgrounds in order to continue existing care and to identify changes needed to respond to worsening of mental health.Consider modifications to existing interventions such as psychological therapies and pharmacotherapy. Have a high index of suspicion to take into account emerging physical health problems and the greater risk of serious consequences of buy antibiotics in ethnic minority people with pre-existing chronic conditions and vulnerability factors.These actions are based on clinical common sense, but guidance in this area should be provided on the basis of good evidence. There has already been a call for urgent cipro tendonitis how long research in the area of buy antibiotics and mental health8 and also a clear need for specific research focusing on the post-buy antibiotics mental health needs of people from the BAME group. Research also needs to recognise the diverse range of different people, with different needs and vulnerabilities, who are grouped under the multidimensional term BAME, including people from different generations, first-time migrants, people from Africa, India, the Caribbean and, more recently, migrants from Eastern Europe.

Application of a race equality impact assessment to all research questions and methodology has recently been proposed as a first step in this cipro tendonitis how long process.2 At this early stage, the guidance for assessing risks of buy antibiotics for health professionals is also useful for patients, until more refined decision support and prediction tools are developed. A recent Public Health England report on ethnic minorities and buy antibiotics9 recommends better recording of ethnicity data in health and social care, and goes further to suggest this should also apply to death certificates. Furthermore, the report recommends more participatory and experience-based research to understand causes and consequences of pre-existing multimorbidity and buy antibiotics , integrated care systems that work well for susceptible and marginalised groups, culturally competent health promotion, prevention and occupational risk assessments, and recovery strategies to mitigate the risks of widening cipro tendonitis how long inequalities as we come out of restrictions.Primary data collection will need to cover not only hospital admissions but also data from primary care, linking information on mental health, buy antibiotics and ethnicity. We already have research and specific guidance emerging on other risk factors, such as age and gender.

Now we also need cipro tendonitis how long to focus on an equally important aspect of vulnerability. As clinicians, we need to balance the relative risks for each of our patients, so that we can act promptly and proactively in response to their individual needs.10 For this, we need evidence-based guidance to ensure we are balancing every risk appropriately and without bias.Footnotei While we have used the term ‘people identifying with BAME groups’, we recognise that this is a multidimensional group and includes vast differences in culture, identity, heritage and histories contained within this abbreviated term..

buy antibiotics has evolved cipro price canada rapidly into a cipro with global http://akrai.org/ impacts. However, as the cipro price canada cipro has developed, it has become increasingly evident that the risks of buy antibiotics, both in terms of rates and particularly of severe complications, are not equal across all members of society. While general risk factors for hospital admission with buy antibiotics include age, male sex and specific comorbidities (eg, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes), there is increasing evidence that people identifying with Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) groupsi have disproportionately higher risks of being adversely affected by buy antibiotics in the UK and the USA. The ethnic disparities include overall numbers of cases, as well as the relative numbers of critical care admissions and deaths.1In the area of mental health, for people from BAME groups, even before the current cipro cipro price canada there were already significant mental health inequalities.2 These inequalities have been increased by the cipro in several ways. The constraints of quarantine have made access to traditional face-to-face support from mental health services more difficult in general.

This difficulty will increase pre-existing inequalities where there are challenges to engaging people in care and in cipro price canada providing early access to services. The restrictions may also reduce the flexibility of care offers, given the need for social isolation, limiting non-essential travel and closure of routine clinics. The service impacts are compounded by constraints on the use of non-traditional or alternative routes to care and support.In addition, there is growing evidence of specific mental health consequences from significant buy antibiotics , with increased rates of not only post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, but also specific neuropsychiatric symptoms.3 Given the higher risks of mental illnesses and complex care needs among ethnic minorities and also cipro price canada in deprived inner city areas, buy antibiotics seems to deliver a double blow. Physical and mental health vulnerabilities are inextricably linked, especially as a significant proportion of healthcare workers (including in mental health services) in the UK are from BAME groups.Focusing on mental health, there is very little buy antibiotics-specific guidance on the needs of patients in the BAME group. The risk to staff in general healthcare (including mental healthcare) is a particular concern, and in response, the Royal College of Psychiatrists cipro price canada and NHS England have produced a report on the impact of buy antibiotics on BAME staff in mental healthcare settings, with guidance on assessment and management of risk using an associated risk assessment tool for staff.4 5However, there is little formal guidance for the busy clinician in balancing different risks for individual mental health patients and treating appropriately.

Thus, for example, an inpatient clinician may want to know whether a patient who is older, has additional comorbidities and is from an ethnic background, should be started on one antipsychotic medication or another, or whether treatments such as vitamin D prophylaxis or treatment and venous thromboembolism prevention should be started earlier in the context of the buy antibiotics cipro. While syntheses of the existing guidelines are available about buy antibiotics and mental health,6 7 there is nothing specific about the cipro price canada healthcare needs of patients from ethnic minorities during the cipro.To fill this gap, we propose three core actions that may help:Ensure good information and psychoeducation packages are made available to those with English as a second language, and ensure health beliefs and knowledge are based on the best evidence available. Address culturally grounded explanatory models and illness perceptions to allay fears and worry, and ensure timely access to testing and care if needed.Maintain levels of service, flexibility in care packages, and personal relationships with patients and carers from ethnic minority backgrounds in order to continue existing care and to identify changes needed to respond to worsening of mental health.Consider modifications to existing interventions such as psychological cipro price canada therapies and pharmacotherapy. Have a high index of suspicion to take into account emerging physical health problems and the greater risk of serious consequences of buy antibiotics in ethnic minority people with pre-existing chronic conditions and vulnerability factors.These actions are based on clinical common sense, but guidance in this area should be provided on the basis of good evidence. There has already been a call for urgent research in the area of buy antibiotics and mental health8 and also a clear need for specific research focusing on the post-buy antibiotics mental health needs of people from cipro price canada the BAME group.

Research also needs to recognise the diverse range of different people, with different needs and vulnerabilities, who are grouped under the multidimensional term BAME, including people from different generations, first-time migrants, people from Africa, India, the Caribbean and, more recently, migrants from Eastern Europe. Application of a race equality cipro price canada impact assessment to all research questions and methodology has recently been proposed as a first step in this process.2 At this early stage, the guidance for assessing risks of buy antibiotics for health professionals is also useful for patients, until more refined decision support and prediction tools are developed. A recent Public Health England report on ethnic minorities and buy antibiotics9 recommends better recording of ethnicity data in health and social care, and goes further to suggest this should also apply to death certificates. Furthermore, the report recommends more participatory and experience-based research to understand causes and consequences of pre-existing multimorbidity and buy antibiotics , integrated care systems that work well for susceptible and marginalised groups, culturally competent health promotion, prevention and occupational risk assessments, and recovery strategies to mitigate the risks of widening inequalities as we come out of restrictions.Primary data collection will need to cover not only hospital admissions but also data from primary care, linking information on mental health, cipro price canada buy antibiotics and ethnicity. We already have research and specific guidance emerging on other risk factors, such as age and gender.

Now we also need to focus on an cipro price canada equally important aspect of vulnerability. As clinicians, we need to balance the relative risks for each of our patients, so that we can act promptly and proactively in response to their individual needs.10 For this, we need evidence-based guidance to ensure we are balancing every risk appropriately and without bias.Footnotei While we have used the term ‘people identifying with BAME groups’, we recognise that this is a multidimensional group and includes vast differences in culture, identity, heritage and histories contained within this abbreviated term..

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€‹NSW Health can advise of an event of concern which has been identified as part of ongoing investigations into a buy antibiotics case reported in Victoria.NSW Health is urgently contacting people from a NSW sporting club based Buy amoxil canada in madera cipres precio Tooleybuc, in the western Riverina region of NSW, who attended a sporting event in Cohuna, Victoria on Saturday 22 May from 12 to 5pm.This event was attended by a confirmed case of buy antibiotics. Anyone who attended is requested to immediately self-isolate and await further advice from NSW Health.NSW Health is working to set up increased capacity for testing in the area and thanks the community for their cooperation.As announced earlier today, NSW Health is advising people in NSW to postpone non-urgent travel to Greater Melbourne and Bendigo, as Victorian health authorities continue to investigate madera cipres precio the buy antibiotics outbreak.People with buy antibiotics have visited a number of venues in Greater Melbourne and in and near Bendigo while infectious. This includes the Melbourne Cricket Ground and a number of hospitality venues.If you madera cipres precio are in NSW and have been in Victoria since 12 May, please check the Victoria Department of Health and Human Services website regularly to see if you have visited any of these venues of concern, and if so, immediately follow the relevant public health advice. Please ask family or friends you went with to do the same.If you attended any of the venues identified at the times listed, please contact NSW Health immediately on 1800 943 553.NSW Health urges everyone to continue to take practical measures to stay buy antibiotics-safe, including practising good hand hygiene and always using QR codes to check in to and out of venues.NSW Health is advising people in NSW to postpone non-urgent travel to Greater Melbourne and Bendigo, as Victorian health authorities continue to investigate an outbreak of buy antibiotics.People with buy antibiotics have visited a number of venues in Greater Melbourne and in and near Bendigo while infectious. This includes the Melbourne Cricket Ground and a number of hospitality venues.If you are in NSW and have been in Victoria since 12 May, please check the Victoria Department of Health and madera cipres precio Human Services website regularly to see if you have visited any of these venues of concern, and if so, immediately follow the relevant public health advice.

Please ask family or friends you went with madera cipres precio to do the same.If you attended any of the venues identified at the times listed, please contact NSW Health immediately on 1800 943 553.Anyone now in NSW who has been in Greater Melbourne or in the Bendigo area since Wednesday 12 May. Should not visit residential aged care facilities should not visit healthcare facilities, unless seeking medical attention or for compassionate reasonsshould come forward for testing immediately with even the mildest of cold-like symptoms, then isolate until a negative result is received.NSW Health asks that anyone who has been in Whittlesea Local Government Area remain particularly vigilant for signs and symptoms of buy antibiotics, in light of the community transmission in that area. They should limit their exposures to high-risk settings, such as pubs, clubs, gyms, large family gatherings and any crowded indoor settings wherever possible for 14 days madera cipres precio since they were last in the Whittlesea Local Government Area. Mask use is strongly encouraged in settings where physical distancing is not possible.NSW Health urges everyone to continue to take practical measures to stay buy antibiotics-safe, including practising good hand hygiene and always using QR codes to check in to madera cipres precio and out of venues. Anyone arriving in NSW by air, rail or road who has been in the Greater Melbourne or Bendigo area in the previous 14 days must complete a travel declaration that confirms they have not attended a venue of concern.The declaration form is available on the Service NSW website, and can be completed in the 24-hour period before entering NSW or on arrival.

The information gathered via the madera cipres precio travel declarations is vital in allowing NSW Health to contact travellers if necessary. There are more than 300 buy antibiotics testing locations across NSW, many of which are open seven days madera cipres precio a week. To find your nearest testing clinic, visit buy antibiotics clinics or contact your GP..

€‹NSW Health can advise of an event of concern which has been identified as part of ongoing investigations into a buy antibiotics case reported in Buy amoxil canada Victoria.NSW Health is urgently contacting people from a cipro price canada NSW sporting club based in Tooleybuc, in the western Riverina region of NSW, who attended a sporting event in Cohuna, Victoria on Saturday 22 May from 12 to 5pm.This event was attended by a confirmed case of buy antibiotics. Anyone who attended is requested to immediately self-isolate and await further advice from NSW Health.NSW Health is working to set up increased capacity for testing in the area and thanks the community for their cooperation.As announced earlier today, NSW Health is advising people in NSW to cipro price canada postpone non-urgent travel to Greater Melbourne and Bendigo, as Victorian health authorities continue to investigate the buy antibiotics outbreak.People with buy antibiotics have visited a number of venues in Greater Melbourne and in and near Bendigo while infectious. This includes the Melbourne Cricket Ground and a number of hospitality venues.If you are in NSW and have been in Victoria since 12 May, please check the Victoria Department of Health and Human Services website regularly to cipro price canada see if you have visited any of these venues of concern, and if so, immediately follow the relevant public health advice. Please ask family or friends you went with to do the same.If you attended any of the venues identified at the times listed, please contact NSW Health immediately on 1800 943 553.NSW Health urges everyone to continue to take practical measures to stay buy antibiotics-safe, including practising good hand hygiene and always using QR codes to check in to and out of venues.NSW Health is advising people in NSW to postpone non-urgent travel to Greater Melbourne and Bendigo, as Victorian health authorities continue to investigate an outbreak of buy antibiotics.People with buy antibiotics have visited a number of venues in Greater Melbourne and in and near Bendigo while infectious. This includes the Melbourne Cricket Ground and a number of hospitality venues.If you are in NSW and have been in Victoria since 12 cipro price canada May, please check the Victoria Department of Health and Human Services website regularly to see if you have visited any of these venues of concern, and if so, immediately follow the relevant public health advice.

Please ask family or friends you went with to do the same.If you attended any of the venues identified at the times cipro price canada listed, please contact NSW Health immediately on 1800 943 553.Anyone now in NSW who has been in Greater Melbourne or in the Bendigo area since Wednesday 12 May. Should not visit residential aged care facilities should not visit healthcare facilities, unless seeking medical attention or for compassionate reasonsshould come forward for testing immediately with even the mildest of cold-like symptoms, then isolate until a negative result is received.NSW Health asks that anyone who has been in Whittlesea Local Government Area remain particularly vigilant for signs and symptoms of buy antibiotics, in light of the community transmission in that area. They should limit their exposures to high-risk settings, such as pubs, clubs, gyms, large family gatherings and any crowded indoor settings wherever possible for 14 days since they were last in the Whittlesea cipro price canada Local Government Area. Mask use is strongly encouraged in settings where physical distancing is not possible.NSW Health cipro price canada urges everyone to continue to take practical measures to stay buy antibiotics-safe, including practising good hand hygiene and always using QR codes to check in to and out of venues. Anyone arriving in NSW by air, rail or road who has been in the Greater Melbourne or Bendigo area in the previous 14 days must complete a travel declaration that confirms they have not attended a venue of concern.The declaration form is available on the Service NSW website, and can be completed in the 24-hour period before entering NSW or on arrival.

The information gathered via cipro price canada the travel declarations is vital in allowing NSW Health to contact travellers if necessary. There are more than 300 buy antibiotics testing locations across NSW, many of which are open seven days a cipro price canada week. To find your nearest testing clinic, visit buy antibiotics clinics or contact your GP..